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Wednesday, January 27, 2016

English 101: Pronouns (series 1.B1)

     Another part of speech is PRONOUN, which is the second Part of Speech we have to discuss after Noun. What is the importance of determining what a Pronoun is and its kind? As we have said earlier it is a substitute for noun, and in succeeding posts, the kind of pronoun to be used has something to do with the verb and correct sentence construction later on.
     Pronoun  is used as a substitute to a noun. The noun that the pronoun replaces is called antecedent. The kinds of Pronoun are as follows:

1) PERSONAL Pronouns.
                           It is used to refer to one or more persons or things.
                               ( look at column 1 and 2 of the chart)

      * Column 1 is the subjective or nominative case of Personal Pronouns.
      * Column 2 is the objective case of  Personal Pronouns


     First Person > refers to the one speaking.
     Second Person > refers to the one being spoken to
     Third Person > refers to the one being spoken about.

    * POSSESSIVE Pronouns. These are personal pronouns used to show
                                                   possession or ownership.
                                                  (look at column 3 and 4 of the chart)

           * Column 3 and 4 is the possessive case of Personal Pronouns.

2) REFLEXIVE Pronouns
                             It is used to indicate that the subject acts to, for,
                             or upon itself. It is formed by adding the 
                             suffixes -self  (singular) or -selves (plural)  
                             to the personal pronouns. (see column 5)

    * INTENSIVE Pronouns. 
                            Reflexive pronouns used to draw special attention 
                            to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. 
                            Examples: I myself wrote this post.
                                             You yourself cannot hide the truth.
                                             Diana herself was amazed.                    
image credit from educatorlabs.com lesson plans

3) DEMONSTRATIVE Pronouns. It tells which one or which group
                                 is being referred to.
                                            Singular   //       Plural
                    close/nearer //  this         //        these  
                             far      //   that        //         those

4) INTERROGATIVE Pronouns. It introduces question.
                 who,   whom,   whose   = asking for a person or persons
                                  which           = asking for a thing, person, place
                                  what             = asking for a thing or things

5) RELATIVE Pronouns.
                    It introduces adjective clauses which are word groups
                    that tell whichwhat kind, or how many.

                            Subjective Case      Objective Case     Possessive Case
       person      -         who                           whom              whose
       things       -         which                         which              whose
       persons/things -  that                            that                 whose
                   
       Examples: He is the boy who rang the bell. (subjective)
                         The boy whom you met at the store. (objective)
                         The boy whose mother had died. (possessive)

                         This is the book which I read in Spain. (subjective)
                         That is the book which you are going to buy. (objective)
                         That is the book whose author I forgot. (possessive)

                          He is the man that broke the glass. (subjective)
                          He is the man that everyone hates. (objective)
                          He is the man whose gun was confiscated. (possessive)

6) INDEFINITE Pronouns.
                             It refers to persons, places, and things in general.
                             It can be used without antecedents.
                     
                            Singular
                            anybody       everyone       no one  
                            anyone         much             one
                            each             neither           somebody
                            either           nobody          someone
                            everybody   something     anything
     
                            Plural
                            both             few                many
                            others          several

                            The following can either be singular or plural,
                            depending on how they were used in a sentence.
                             all     any     most     none     some

#pronouns #english101 #kindsofpronoun #grammar #

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