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Sunday, May 15, 2016

Presidential, Parliamentary, & Federal - What Are They?

     The Philippine National Election  on May 9 have shown that people are becoming excited on who would win the election and the changes that might take place once the popular becomes the president. People are clamoring for changes and sensitivity that they wanted someone in authority who would overturn the increasing crime, yet approachable that can be easily reached and mindful of the people's plight. Questions as to "would he stand by his promise, when is he going to do it, and how he would do it" are being asked by people. What could be his first task at hand?
     One declaration that elected President Rodrigo Duterte had stated during his campaign, is to change the present form of the Philippine government. There are as numerous as a public classroom students the list of varied forms of government in the different parts of the world. We mostly hear the anarchy, oligarchy, communist, socialist, marxist, imperialist, parliamentary, federal, to name a few. Actually  the different systems or forms government are being taught as early as grade 4 or 5.

     At present, Philippines is a republic with a Presidential form of government. Under the Presidential form, our country is divided into three (3) branches with equal powers but separate from each other as illustrated in the image below.
1) Legislative Division is responsible in making laws, altering or repealing them. The Senate  and the House of Representatives or Congress are under this division. Elected by people.
2) Executive Division is responsible in executing and implementing the laws. The President and his Vice President, along with the mayoralty are under this division and elected by people. The President however, appoints his own cabinet members (department secretaries) as granted by the Constitution.
3) Judiciary Division is responsible in settling controversies which are legally demandable and enforceable. The Supreme Court and Lower Court are under this division. It has also the power as granted by the Constitution to declare a treaty, international or executive agreement, law, presidential decree, proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance, or unconstitutional regulation. Appointments are made by the President based on a list submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council under the supervision of the Supreme Court.

Parliamentary on the other hand, consists of two organizing body who are closely related and dependent upon each other. The two organizing body share their powers. See illustration below:

1) Legislature may either be called assembly, congress, or legislators. It is the law-making body of a government that has the power to amend and repeal public policy; observes and steers governing actions in a government system. Depending on certain countries or states, it may be in the form of unicameral or bicameral.
2) Executive consists of the head of state, it may be a President or Monarchy. As the case may be, they are the head of state but not the head of the government. The majority party who wins in the election for Legislature is appointed Prime Minister, also called as Premier or Chancellor. The Prime Minister possesses much greater power and status than the other ministers. The President or Monarchy appointed Cabinet Ministers with the advice of the Prime Minister. However, the Cabinet or Ministers are responsible to the legislature for all its activities and policies. The President is elected while a Monarchy is inherited.

Federal system of government is a division of power between a central national government and local governments that are connected by one another by the central national government. See the illustration below to have a clear grasp how federalism works.

     There are powers designated to the Central/National government and powers reserved to the Regional/State government, but there are also the same shared power depending on what the constitution stated. Each regional/state government elected a governor aside from its mayoralty. And just like in presidential system, the central national government has the Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary division with its separate powers. The idea behind Federalism is to better suit the needs of each area in the country. The smaller branches of government from each region/state could deal with true things that need to be changed.

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I would appreciate comments and links related to my blog post. Feel free ..~ April Brews