It is actually read as K to 12, Kindergarten to Grade 12. Philippines was among the three (3) countries and the only in Asia that offered the 10-year education cycle before entering college. Philippines before had six (6) years of primary (grade 1-3) and intermediate school level (grade 4-6); four (4) years of high school labeled as 1st year high=freshman, 2nd year high=sophomore, 3rd year high=junior, and 4th year=senior. Kindergarten then is not compulsory, yet there are schools offering three levels for Kindergarten, hence, nursery > kinder > preparatory, or nursery > kinder 1> kinder 2, depends on the school rules and policies.
Until 2012, Republic Act 10157, known as the Kindergarten Education Act is ratified by the Congress and signed by then President Benigno C. Aquino Jr., a compulsory education for five (5) years old before they enter into formal schooling, as it is considered the developmental years to ascertain their formal school readiness. Likewise, the Republic 10533 - Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 was signed and approved last May 2013, yet implemented a year before for those who have enrolled in grade 7.
Questions and disagreement have been posed by some parents and students, however, the 1st batch of K-12 Grade 11, Senior High School is currently taking the different tracks the DepEd (Department of Education) is offering. This year's 1st batch are expected to complete the K-12 on 2018.
|image credit to DepEd website|
The following information about K-12 and Senior High School (SHS) are enumerated below:
- K-12 is an educational mandatory for parents and school agencies to start education for the children at the age of five (5) through Kindergarten to ascertain the readiness of children for formal schooling. Primary education begins from grade 1 to 6, then four (4) years of Junior High School, and another two (2) years of Senior High School.
- A student who has finished K-10 but do not want to continue in Senior High School may do so but he/she will miss the opportunity of earning a high school diploma, thus, he/she will be called as Grade 10 Completer.
- It does not cost anything to enroll in Senior High School in Public/Government Schools. Tuition fees in private schools are also paid by DepEd thru its voucher program, however, they can top it up with some miscellaneous expenses which students will have to pay separately.
- All Grade 10 Completers from public/government schools get a Voucher for enrolling in a Private or Non-DepEd Senior High School. However, payment of tuition fees are coursed from Government to School Agencies.
- All Grade 10 Completers from private schools who are ESC (Education Service Contracting)* Grantees also get a Voucher for enrolling in a Private or Non-DepEd Senior High School.
- After finishing Senior High School, graduates can apply for employment, be an entrepreneur, pursue higher education (college) or middle skills development (short courses/TESDA)
- Senior High School offers four (4) Tracks to which Grade 10 Completers can choose from depending on their interest:
- Academic Track
- Technical-Vocational & livelihood Track (TVL)
- Arts & Design Tracks, and
- Sports Track.
- If students will have to choose Academic Track, they have four (4) strands to choose from:  Accountancy, Business and Management Strand (ABM),  Humanities & Social Sciences Strand (HUMSS),  Science, Technology, Engineering,& Mathematics Strand (STEM), and  General Academic Strand (GAS).
- If students opted to choose Technical-Vocational & Livelihood Track (TVL), they have also four (4) strands to choose from: Agri-Fishery Arts Strand, Home Economics Strand, Industrial Arts Strand, and Information & Communication Technology Strand. Each strands have their specialization** depending on what the school agency has to offer.
- Arts and Design Track has six (6) strands: Music, Dance, Film/Media/IT, Visual Arts, Indigenous Arts, and Theater Arts.
- Sports Track include subjects such as Safety & First Aid, Understanding Human Movement, General Coaching course, Sports Officiating, Fitness Leadership, Sports/Recreation/Fitness Management, Student-Athlete Enhancement & Formation, Fitness Testing * Exercise Prescription, and Recreation Leadership. However, there is a particular sports specialization and fitness to choose from depends on what a particular school has to offer.
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